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真空断路器工作原理及作用是什么
时间:2018-06-23  编辑:陕西久兴电气集团有限公司

真空断路器
金誉彩票 真空断路器处于合闸位置时,其对地绝缘由支持绝缘子承受,一旦真空断路器所连接的线路发生永久接地故障,断路器动作跳闸后,接地故障点又未被清除,则有电母线的对地绝缘亦要由该断路器断口的真空间隙承受;各种故障开断时,断口一对触子间的真空绝缘间隙要耐受各种恢复电压的作用而不发生击穿。因此,真空间隙的绝缘特性成为提高灭弧室断口电压,使单断口真空断路器向高电压等级发展的主要研究课题。

  真空度的表示方式

  JUEDUIYALIDIYUYIGEDAQIYADEQITIXIBODEKONGJIAN,CHENGWEIZHENKONGKONGJIAN,ZHENKONGDUYUEGAOJIKONGJIANNEIQITIYAQIANGYUEDI。ZHENKONGDUDEDANWEIYOUSANZHONGBIAOSHIFANGSHI:TUO(JI1GEmmSHUIYINZHUGAO),HAOBA(103bar)HUOPA(PASIKA:Pa)。(1TUO=131。6Pa,1HAOBA=100Pa)WOMENTONGCHANGSUOSHUOZHENKONGMIEHUSHINEIBUDEZHENKONGDUYAODA10-4TUOSHIZHIMIEHUSHINEIDEQITIYAQIANGJINWEI"WANFENZHIYImmSHUIYINZHUGAO",YIJISHI1。31x10-2Pa。

  "派森定理"亦有译为"巴申定律",是指间隙电压耐受强度与气体压力之间的关系。图1表示派森定理的关系曲线呈"V"字形,即充气压力的增加或降低,都能提高极间间隙绝缘强度。其击穿机理至今还不清楚,因为真空灭弧室内部真空度高于10-4托,这样稀薄空气的空间,气体分子的自由行程为103mm,在真空灭弧室这么大小的容积内,发生碰撞的机率几乎是零。因此不会发生碰撞游离而使真空间隙击穿。派森定理的"V"形曲线是实验得出的,条件是在均匀电场的情况下,其间隙击穿电压Uj可表示为:

        Uj=KLa

      L------JIANXIJULI;

      a------JIANXIXISHU(JIANXI<5mmSHIa=1,>5mmSHI,a=0。5)

YOUPAISENDINGLIDE"V"XINGGUANXIQUXIANZHONGKANCHU,DANGZHENKONGDUDA103TUOSHICHUXIANGUAIDIAN,GUAIDIANSIZHOUQUXIANBIANDEPINGTAN,JICHUANDIANYAJIHUWUBIANHUA。

金誉彩票   DANGZHENKONGDUHEJIANXIJULIXIANGTONGSHI,QIJICHUANDIANYAZESUICHUTOUDIANJICAILIAOFASHENGBIANHUA,DIANJICAILIAOJIXIEQIANGDUGAO,RONGDIANGAOSHI,ZHENKONGJIANXIDEJICHUANDIANYAYISUIZHITIGAO。

 真空绝缘的破坏机理

  QIANMIANYISHUOGUO,ZAIZHENKONGMIEHUSHIZHEIYANGGAODUZHENKONGDUDEKONGJIANNEI,QITIFENZIDEZIYOUXINGCHENGHENDA,BUHUIFASHENGPENGZHUANGFENLIERSHIZHENKONGJIANXIZAIGAOYADIANZUOYONGXIAHUIJICHUANYOUSHIKEGUANCUNZAI,YUSHIJIUYOUZHONGJIESHIZHENKONGJUEYUANHUIPOHUAIDEJILI,CHANGZHIFASHEYINQIJICHUAN,WEIKUAIYINQIJICHUANHEWEIFANGDIANDAOZHIJICHUAN。

  CHANGZHIFASHELUNDUIZHENKONGJIANXISUOYINENGFASHENGJICHUANDEJIESHI

  JIANXIDIANCHANGNENGLIANGJIZHONG,ZAIDIANJIWEIGUANBIAOMIANDETUCHUBUFENFASHENGDIANZIFASHEHUOZHENGFAYICHU,ZHUANGJIYANGJISHIJUBUFARE,JIXUFANGCHULIZIHUOZHENGQI,ZHENGLIZIZAIZHUANGJIYINJIFASHENGERCIFASHE,XIANGHUBUDUANJILEI,ZUIHOUDAOZHIJIANXIJICHUAN。

  WENMINGDEFowlerandNoraheimCHANGFASHEDIANLIUIBIAODASHIWEI:

             I=AE2e-B/E

         SHIZHONG E------DIANCHANGQIANGDU;

            A------CHANGSHU,YUFASHEDIANDEMIANJIYOUGUAN;

金誉彩票             B------CHANGSHU,YUDIANJIBIAOMIANDEYICHUYOUGUAN。

金誉彩票   ZAIXIAODEJIANXI(<1mm)JIDUANMAICHONGDIANYAQINGKUANGXIA,KEYIHELIDIRENWEIZHENKONGJIANXIJICHUANSHIYOUCHANGZHIFASHEYINQIDE,DANZAIZHANGJIANXIJILIANXUJIAYAYUZHANGMAICHONGDIANYAXIA,YOUDEXUEZHERENWEIZHENKONGDEJICHUANSHANGCUNZAIQITAJILI:

(1)YINJIYINQIDEJICHUAN;ZAIQIANGDIANCHANGXIA,YOUYUCHANGFASHEDIANLIUDEJIAOERFAREXIAOYING,SHIYINJIBIAOMIANTUCHUWUDEWENDUSHENGGAO,DANGWENDUDADAOLINJIEDIANSHI,TUCHUWURONGHUACHANSHENGZHENGQIYINQIJICHUAN。

金誉彩票 (2)YANGJIYINQIDEJICHUAN:YOUYUYINJIFASHEDEDIANZISHU,HONGJIYANGJISHIMOUDIANFARECHANSHENGRONGHUAHEZHENGQIERFASHENGJIANXIJICHUAN。CHANSHENGYANGJIYINQIJICHUANDETIAOJIANYUDIANCHANGTIGAOXISHUHEJIANXIJULIYOUGUAN。

金誉彩票   WEIKUAIYINQIJICHUANDEJIESHI

  JIASHEZAIDIANJIBIAOMIANFUZHEJIAOQINGSONGDEWEIKUAI,ZAIDIANCHANGZUOYONGXIA,WEIKUAITUOLUOERQIEJIASU,ZHEIWEIKUAIZHUANGJIDUIMIANDEDIANJISHI,YOUYUCHONGJIFAREKESHIQIBENSHENRONGHUACHANSHENGZHENGQI,YINQIJICHUAN。

金誉彩票   WEIFANGDIANDAOZHIZHENKONGJIANXIJICHUANDEJIESHI

  DIANJIDEYINJIBIAOMIANZHANWU,JIANGFASHENGWEIFANGDIANXIANXIANG。WEIFANGDIANSHIYIZHONGXIAODEZIYIZHIXIMIEDEDIANLIUMAICHONG,TADEZONGFANGDIANDIANHE3107C,CUNZAISHIJIANYOU50msDAOJIms,FANGDIANYIBANFASHENGZAIDAYU1mmDEJIANXIZHONG。

金誉彩票   ZHEIXIEZHENKONGJIANXIDEJICHUANJILIBIAOMING,ZHENKONGDIANJIDECAILIAOYUDIANJIDEBIAOMIANZHUANGKUANGDUIZHENKONGJIANXIDEJUEYUANDOUSHIFEICHANGYAOHAIDEYINSU。

金誉彩票   ZHENKONGJIANXIDEJUEYUANNAISHOUNENGLIYUZAIXIANDEFENHEZHACAOZUOGONGKUANGYOUGUAN

金誉彩票   ZHENKONGDUANLUQIJIECHUJIANXIDEJICHUANDIANYA,YINNAIYASHIYANQIANBUTONGGONGKUANGDEFENHEZHACAOZUOYOUXIANGYINGDEBUTONGJIEGUO,YIDALIGELUNBU(Colombo)GONGCHENGSHIZAISHEBEITAOLUNHUISHANGYOUWENLUNSHUGUOZHEIFANGMIANDEWENTI:SHIYANDUIXIANGSHI24KVDUANLUQI,TONGGECHUTOU,EDINGKAIDUANDIANLIU16KA,EDINGDIANLIU630A,CHUTOUKAIJU15。8mm,CHUTOUFENZHASUDU1。1m/s,HEZHASUDUWEI0。6m/s。SHIYANCHENGXULIEYUBIAO1。

金誉彩票   ZAIGUANHE---FENZHACAOZUO(SHIYANXILIE2~5)HOUCHANSHENGDEZUIDAJICHUANDIANYABIKONGZAIXUNHUAN(SHIYANXILIE1)HOUJICHUDESHUZHIDI,ZHEIYIWEIZHECHUTOUJICHUANJULISHOUDIANHUDIANLIUDEYINGXIANGERJIANXIAO;TONGSHI,XILIE2HEXILIE5SUOCEDEDESHUZHIYIXIAOYUXILIE3HEXILIE4DESHIYANZHI,ERDIANLIUGUOLINGBOXINGHEJIXINGSIHUWUMINGXIANYINGXIANG。SHIYANJIEGUOZHENGSHILEKAIBICAOZUODEXINGSHIDUIDUANLUQICHUTOUZHIJIANDEJUEYUANNAISHOUNENGLIYOUYINGXIANG,JICHUANDIANYAZAI30~50kVFANWEINEI,JICHUANJULIWEI0。6~2mmZHIJIAN,JICHUANSHICHUTOUDEDIANCHANGQIANGDUWEI25~44kV。

金誉彩票 BIAO1SHIYANCHENGXUJINEIRONGBIAO

 

SHIYANXUHAO

金誉彩票 SHIYANDIANLIU

XIANGHAO

CAOZUO/SHIYANSHUNXU

1   1-1

1-2

1-3

1-4

合闸-分闸

金誉彩票 CHONGJIJUEYUANDIANLIU

金誉彩票 1FENZHONGGONGPINSHIYAN

GAOPINXIHUNENGLISHIYAN

2 100额定开断电流 2-1

2-2

2-3

2-4

关合--开断

金誉彩票 CHONGJIJUEYUANSHIYAN

金誉彩票 1FENZHONGGONGPINSHIYAN

GAOPINXIHUNENGLISHIYAN

3 30额定开断电流   用30额定开断电流值,不同的电流波极性按2。1~2。4逐项试验
4 10额定开断电流   用60额定开断电流值重复进行2。1~2。4的逐项试验

  YIDALIGELUNBUGONGCHENGSHISHANGSHUSHIYANDEJIEGUOBIAOMING,ZHENKONGKAIGUANZAIKAIDUANDADIANLIUHOU,QIZHENKONGJIANXIAOJUEYUANQIANGDUHUIXIAJIANGSHIYIZHONGPUBIANXIANXIANG。YINCI,WOGUOZAOQIDEZHENKONGDUANLUQIZAIKAIDUANGUZHANGHOU,JIANXIJUEYUANHUIXIAJIANG,DABUDAOCHANPINJISHUTIAOJIANDEJUEYUANSHUIPING,GUNENGYUANBUDUIHUNEIGAOYAZHENKONGDUANLUQIDINGHUOYAOQIU(BUBIAODL403--91)DAYINGZAIZHENKONGDUANLUQIDIANSHOUMINGSHIYANHOU,JIJIANNAIYAZHIJIANGWEIYUANBIAOZHUNDE80ZUOSHIYAN,JIARUTONGGUO,JIURENWEIGAIDUANLUQIDEXINGSHISHIYANHEGE。NEIME,RUHEJIESHIMUQIANXUDUOZHENKONGDUANLUQIZHIZAOCHANGZAIZUOCHANPINJIESHAOSHI,FANFUQIANGDIAOTAMENDEZHENKONGDUANLUQIDIANSHOUMINGSHIYANHOU,JIANXIDEJUEYUANQIANGDIAOBUJIANGDINI?WOMENYI10kVZHENKONGDUANLUQIWEILILAIDUICIZUOSHUOMING:ZHENKONGMIEHUSHIJINGGUOJISHUHEGONGYIGAIJIN,JIJIANJUEYUANSHUIPINGTONGZAOQICHANPINBIJIAO,TIGAOHENDUOLIRUKEDADAOAZHI,YUANBICHANPINBIAOZHUNGUIDINGDENAIYAZHIC(GONGPIN42kV,CHONGJI75kV)GAODEDUO,CHUCHANGXINPINANCZHISHIYANDANGRANBUHUIJICHUAN,DIANSHOUMINGSHIYANHOU,JIANXIJUEYUANSHUIPINGYOUAZHIJIANGWEIBZHI,DANBZHI>CZHI,GUANCZHIQUXIAOHEQIJUEYUAN,SHIYANSHIYIBUHUIFASHENGJICHUAN。ERLAOCHANPINDEA''ZHISHIDAYUCZHI,CHUCHANGXINPINANCZHIKAOHE,DANGRANNENGTONGGUO,KAIDUANGUZHANGHOU,YOUA"ZHIJIANGDAOB"ZHI。

提高真空灭弧室绝缘耐受能力的措施

  ZHENKONGDUANLUQIYAOXIANGGAODIANYASHIYONGLINGYUFAZHAN,TIGAOZHENKONGMIEHUSHIDUANKOUJIJIANJUEYUANNAISHOUNENGLIZHICHENGEDINGDIANYAJIAOGAODEDANDUDUANKOUZHENKONGMIEHUSHIDEJINGJIYIYISHIJUDADE,BUDANKEJIANSHAOCHUANLIANDUANKOUDESHULIANG,ERQIESHIDUANLUQIJIEGOUJIANDAN,CONGERTIGAOLESHEBEIKEKAOXINGBINGSHISHEBEIZAOJIAYIXIANGYINGJIANGDI。TIGAODANDUANKOUZHENKONGMIEHUSHIDEJUEYUANNAISHOUNENGLIZHUYAOZAIXIALIESANFANGMIANCAIQUCUOSHI。

真空灭弧室内触头间耐压强度的提高

  QIANMIANYISHUOGUO,ZAIMIEHUSHINEIBUGAODUZHENKONGDEQINGKUANGXIA,CHUTOUJIANCUNZAIDEQITIFEICHANGXISHAO,BUHUISHOUJIJIANDIANYAERCHANSHENGYOULI,DANJIJIANFASHENGJICHUANSHIKEGUANCUNZAI,CONGERCHANSHENGJIZHONGZHENKONGJUEYUANPOHUAIJILIDEJIESHI。ZHENKONGJIANXISHIJIJICHUANSHI,YOUKENENGSHIJIZHONGJILITONGSHIFASHENGZUOYONG,ERQIEJICHUANTUJINGZHONGZONGSHIYOUYOULIQITICUNZAI,ZHEISHIYOUSHIJIADIANYAHOUCHANSHENGDEJINSHUZHENGQIHUOCHUTOUSHIFANGLESUOXIFUDEQITITIGONGDE。JIYUCIDIANCHUFA,CAIQUXIALIECUOSHIYITIGAOZHENKONGMIEHUSHICHUTOUJIANXIDENAIYAXINGNENG:

金誉彩票 (1)XUANZERONGDIANHUOFEIDIANGAO,RECHUANDAOLVXIAO,JIXIEQIANGDUHEYINGDUDADECHUTOUCAILIAO;

(2)YUXIANXIANGCHUTOUJIANXISHIJIAGAODIANYA,SHIQIFANFUFANGDIAN,SHICHUTOUBIAOMIANFUZHEDEJINSHUHUOJUEYUANWEILIRONGHUA,ZHENGFA,JISUOWEI"LAOLIANCHULI";

金誉彩票 (3)QINGCHUXIFUZAICHUTOUHUOMIEHUSHIBIAOMIANSHANGDEQITI,JIJINXINGJIARETUOQICHULI;

(4)选择合适的触头外形,改善触头的电场分布。

提高开断电流后触头极间的绝缘恢复速度

  通常断路开断电流成功的要害在于电弧电流过零后,触头间隙绝缘恢复速度快于触头间隙间的暂态恢复电压速度,就不会发生重燃而达到成功开断。真空灭弧室开断电流时,电弧放出的金属蒸汽在电弧电流过零时会迅速扩散,碰到触头或屏蔽罩表面会立即凝聚。因此欲求在开断电流相应的触头尺寸,材质,形态,触头间隙以及电流开断时产生的金属蒸汽密度,带电粒子密度等影响因素进行反复实验取得试验数据作分析研究。发现触头直径越大且触头间隙越小,电流开断后的绝缘强度恢复越快;纵向磁场触头结构的采用,有极为良好的弧后绝缘恢复特性。

提高真空灭弧室的外部绝缘

  ZHENKONGMIEHUSHIDEWAIBUBIAOMIAN,RUCHUYUZHENGCHANGDEDAQIZHIZHONG,ZEJUEYUANNAIYASHIHENDIDE,BUNENGSHIHEGAODIANYATIAOJIANXIASHIYONG,SUIZHEZHENKONGDUANLUQIXIANGGAODIANYA,XIAOXINGHUAFANGXIANGFAZHAN,DUIZHENKONGMIEHUSHIWAIBUBIAOMIANCAIQUXIALIEQIANGHUACUOSHI:

(1)YONGHUANYANGSHUZHIJUEYUANBAOGUOZHENKONGMIEHUSHITAOCIWAIQIAOBIAOMIAN,HUANYANGSHUZHIJUYOUGAOJUEYUANXINGNENG,QICHONGJIDIANYAWEI50kV/mm,GONGPINNAIYAWEI30kV/mm,ERQIEQIZHIPINJIXIEQIANGDUGAO,JIAOZHUJIAGONGXINGNENGHAO,KEYIJIAOQINGYICHENGXINGFUGAIYUTAOCIWAIQIAOBIAOMIAN,CONGERDADAOMIEHUSHIWAIBIAOMIANJUEYUANQIANGHUADEMUDE。BINGTIGAOLENAIWUXINGNENG,SHISUOXUDUIDIJUEYUANGENGQUHELIHUA。HUWAIZHENKONGDUANLUZEWANGWANGCAIYONGDAIYOUQUNBIANDEGUIJIAOWAITAOZUOGUAN,FUGAIYUTAOCIWAIQIAODEBIAOMIAN,JUYOUGENGHAODEKANGWUSHANXINGNENG,DANJIXIEQIANGDUZEBURUHUANYANGSHUZHIZHIJIAN。

(2)JIANGZHENKONGMIEHUSHIZHIYUSF6QITIZHIZHONG,SHITAOCIWAIQIAOWEISF6QITISUOBAOWEI,YOUYUSF6QITIZHIQIJUEYUANZUOYONG,QICHONGQIYALIYIBANSHIBUGAODE。